It includes all procedures that involve the partial or total removal of external genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. It is estimated that over million girls and women worldwide have suffered the effects of this practice and that approximately 3. Human rights-based approaches to eradication include, but are not limited to, the enforcement of laws, education programs focused on empowerment, and campaigns to recruit change agents from within communities. Violence against women and girls affects females throughout the world and crosses cultural and economic boundaries. Throughout the past 20 years, extensive research has been done on such violence and its underlying causes and risk factors.
Further information: Campaign against female genital mutilation in colonial Kenya. Several countries also impose monetary fines. Lexington: Women's International Network. The Oxford Dictionary of genihal Jewish Religion. Berg R.
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Published: 8 Mar In communities where infibulation is common, there is a preference for women's genitals to be smooth, dry and without odour, and mutillation women and men may find the natural vulva repulsive. Nnaemeka argues that the crucial question, broader than FGM, is why Is female genital mutilation right female body is subjected to so much "abuse and indignity", including in the West. Macon: Mercer University Press. Amal Ahmed and Edna Adan Ismail, SOFHA executive director and president, are some of those leading the struggle by building partnerships with government ministries and civil society organisations some of whose leaders are also returnees from the Diasporain schools and mtilation and reaching out to young women of the Somali diaspora - to build a movement for social change; "We recognise that to succeed in ending FGM - we must work at geniatl levels and with all players, including religious leaders, young people, mothers and grandmothers; focusing on human rights and gender equality and to speak in a language that is understood". Pokot girls covered with animal skins squat on rocks after mutilatoin stripped naked Voyeur webv washed during their circumcision rite in a village about 80 kilometres from the Is female genital mutilation right of Marigat in Baringo County. Urinary problems. Her mutilatlon happened during a family vacation in India. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. Classification of female genital mutilationGeneva: World Health Organization, American Anthropologist.
Eliminating Female genital mutilation FGM is finally in the spotlight of the international policy agenda.
- Eliminating Female genital mutilation FGM is finally in the spotlight of the international policy agenda.
- While the exact number of girls and women worldwide who have undergone FGM remains unknown, at least million girls and women have been cut in 30 countries with representative data on prevalence.
- Two doctors and one of their wives charged with subjecting two seven-year-old girls to genital cutting.
- Female genital mutilation FGM , also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision , [a] is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia.
Female genital mutilation comprises all procedures that involve the partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. The practice is rooted in traditional practices whose origins are unclear. The reasons behind the practice vary from region to region, and across cultures and communities.
The practice is a manifestation of gender inequality and discrimination against girls and women that is entrenched in traditional social, economic and political structures. The practice is shrouded in secrecy and is often initiated and carried out by traditional circumcisers, in unhygienic conditions using unsafe instruments. The practice has no known health benefits for girls and women.
It involves damaging or removing healthy and normal female genital tissue, and interferes with the natural functions of the body. The practice can cause immediate complications, including severe pain, excessive bleeding and problems urinating. It can also have long-term effects, including leading to cysts and infections, as well as complications in childbirth.
The event itself can be traumatic for survivors and can cause lasting psychological consequences. The practice violates the right of girls and women to equality and non-discrimination, including in relation to the elimination of violence against women. It violates the right to security and physical integrity, and the right to the highest attainable standard of health. It also violates the right to be free from torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment. In some instances, when the practice causes death, it also violates the right to life.
FGM is usually practiced on girls in the range of years. Therefore, it is a violation of the rights of the child, especially the right to be protected from violence and to develop in a healthy manner. The Bohra community is estimated to be one million strong in India; many also live outside India. While the practice is well-documented around the world, in India the veil of secrecy around the practice has meant there is no official data on its prevalence.
Many said that they experienced painful urination, physical discomfort, difficulty walking, and bleeding immediately following the procedure. The women also reported long-lasting psychological harm resulting from their experiences.
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The clitoris is a gift, so why is there an ingrained fear of talking about it? Some approaches include: Community involvement. Crista Johnson-Agbakwu, M. International Journal of Epidemiology. Type Ia [e] involves removal of the clitoral hood only. Female genital mutilation Activists against female genital mutilation.
Is female genital mutilation right. Regional sites
Little knives in their sheaths That they may fight with the church, The time has come. Elders of the church When Kenyatta comes You will be given women's clothes And you will have to cook him his food. An important ethnic marker, the practice was known by the Kikuyu , the country's main ethnic group, as irua for both girls and boys.
It involved excision Type II for girls and removal of the foreskin for boys. Unexcised Kikuyu women irugu were outcasts. Jomo Kenyatta , general secretary of the Kikuyu Central Association and later Kenya's first prime minister, wrote in that, for the Kikuyu, the institution of FGM was the " conditio sine qua non of the whole teaching of tribal law, religion and morality". No proper Kikuyu man or woman would marry or have sexual relations with someone who was not circumcised, he wrote.
A woman's responsibilities toward the tribe began with her initiation. Her age and place within tribal history was traced to that day, and the group of girls with whom she was cut was named according to current events, an oral tradition that allowed the Kikuyu to track people and events going back hundreds of years.
Beginning with the CSM in , several missionary churches declared that FGM was prohibited for African Christians; the CSM announced that Africans practising it would be excommunicated, which resulted in hundreds leaving or being expelled. There was some opposition from Kenyan women themselves. Because of that the issue of circumcision should not be forced. People are caught like sheep; one should be allowed to cut her own way of either agreeing to be circumcised or not without being dictated on one's own body.
Elsewhere, support for the practice from women was strong. In in Meru, eastern Kenya, when the council of male elders the Njuri Nchecke announced a ban on FGM in , thousands of girls cut each other's genitals with razor blades over the next three years as a symbol of defiance.
The movement came to be known as Ngaitana "I will circumcise myself" , because to avoid naming their friends the girls said they had cut themselves. Historian Lynn Thomas described the episode as significant in the history of FGM because it made clear that its victims were also its perpetrators. Infibulation was banned there in , but the law was unpopular and barely enforced. I did not know what they had cut off from my body, and I did not try to find out. I just wept, and called out to my mother for help.
But the worst shock of all was when I looked around and found her standing by my side. Yes, it was her, I could not be mistaken, in flesh and blood, right in the midst of these strangers, talking to them and smiling at them, as though they had not participated in slaughtering her daughter just a few moments ago. In , Rose Oldfield Hayes, an American social scientist, became the first female academic to publish a detailed account of FGM, aided by her ability to discuss it directly with women in Sudan.
Her article in American Ethnologist called it "female genital mutilation", rather than female circumcision, and brought it to wider academic attention. She estimated that ,, women in 20 African countries had experienced FGM. The conference listed FGM as a form of violence against women , marking it as a human-rights violation, rather than a medical issue.
Immigration spread the practice to Australia, New Zealand, Europe and North America, all of which outlawed it entirely or restricted it to consenting adults. In the United States an estimated , women and girls had experienced FGM or were at risk as of Canada recognized FGM as a form of persecution in July , when it granted refugee status to Khadra Hassan Farah, who had fled Somalia to avoid her daughter being cut.
Canadian officials have expressed concern that a few thousand Canadian girls are at risk of "vacation cutting", whereby girls are taken overseas to undergo the procedure, but as of there were no firm figures. According to Colette Gallard, a family-planning counsellor, when FGM was first encountered in France, the reaction was that Westerners ought not to intervene. It took the deaths of two girls in , one of them three months old, for that attitude to change.
Around , women and girls living in England and Wales were born in countries where FGM is practised, as of Both men were acquitted in Anthropologists have accused FGM eradicationists of cultural colonialism , and have been criticized in turn for their moral relativism and failure to defend the idea of universal human rights.
Africans who object to the tone of FGM opposition risk appearing to defend the practice. The feminist theorist Obioma Nnaemeka , herself strongly opposed to FGM, argued in that renaming the practice female genital mutilation had introduced "a subtext of barbaric African and Muslim cultures and the West's relevance even indispensability in purging [it]".
African feminists "take strong exception to the imperialist, racist and dehumanising infantilization of African women", she wrote in Examples include images of women's vulvas after FGM or girls undergoing the procedure. The debate has highlighted a tension between anthropology and feminism, with the former's focus on tolerance and the latter's on equal rights for women.
According to the anthropologist Christine Walley, a common position in anti-FGM literature has been to present African women as victims of false consciousness participating in their own oppression, a position promoted by feminists in the s and s, including Fran Hosken, Mary Daly and Hanny Lightfoot-Klein. Nnaemeka argues that the crucial question, broader than FGM, is why the female body is subjected to so much "abuse and indignity", including in the West.
Cosmetic procedures such as labiaplasty and clitoral hood reduction do fall within the WHO's definition of FGM, which aims to avoid loopholes, but the WHO notes that these elective practices are generally not regarded as FGM.
Sweden, for example, has banned operations "on the outer female sexual organs with a view to mutilating them or bringing about some other permanent change in them, regardless of whether or not consent has been given for the operation". The distinction between social pressure and physical force is morally and legally salient, comparable to the distinction between seduction and rape.
She argues further that the literacy of women in practising countries is generally poorer than in developed nations, which reduces their ability to make informed choices. Several commentators maintain that children's rights are violated not only by FGM but also by the genital alteration of intersex children, who are born with anomalies that physicians choose to correct. Globally about 30 percent of males over 15 are circumcised; of these, about two-thirds are Muslim.
WHO : "[There is a] common tendency to describe Type I as removal of the prepuce, whereas this has not been documented as a traditional form of female genital mutilation. However, in some countries, medicalized female genital mutilation can include removal of the prepuce only Type Ia Thabet and Thabet, , but this form appears to be relatively rare Satti et al. Some are doing so for the first time, defying the sect's historic secrecy about cutting and taking a risk that they or relatives will be ostracized.
Bettina Shell-Duncan : "[W]hen you talk to people on the ground, you also hear people talking about the idea that it's women's business. As in, it's for women to decide this. If we look at the data across Africa, the support for the practice is stronger among women than among men. Book XVI, chapter 4 , Donaldson James, Susan 13 December ABC News. Gregorio, I. Freedman, Andrew L. May From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see FGM disambiguation. Road sign near Kapchorwa , Uganda , External images.
Further information: Prevalence of female genital mutilation by country. Downward trend. Kenyan FGM ceremony. Further information: Religious views on female genital mutilation.
Spell Further information: Campaign against female genital mutilation in colonial Kenya. Denniston, et al eds. Further information: Female genital mutilation in the United States.
Further information: Female genital mutilation in the United Kingdom. Further information: Intersex medical interventions and Circumcision. The term 'female circumcision' has been rejected by international medical practitioners because it suggests the fallacious analogy to male circumcision Cut, no flesh removed describes a practice known as nicking or pricking, which currently is categorized as Type IV.
And sewn closed corresponds to Type III, infibulation. National Public Radio. Dimension to Debate on Genital Mutilation". The New York Times. The Guardian. Also see Yasin et al. The Pulitzer Prizes. Archived from the original on 7 October Also see figure 6. Archived from the original on 26 August Cohen , 59—61 argues that Strabo conflated the Jews with the Egyptians. Also see Barker-Benfield , Abusharaf, Rogaia Mustafa In Abusharaf, Rogaia Mustafa ed.
Female Circumcision: Multicultural Perspectives. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Abdalla, Raqiya D. Ahmadu, Fuambai Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers. Allen, Peter Lewis Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Bagnol, Brigitte; Mariano, Esmeralda African Sexualities: A Reader. Barker-Benfield, G. New York: Routledge.
Berlin, Adele The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion. New York: Oxford University Press. Boddy, Janice Princeton: Princeton University Press. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. Boyle, Elizabeth Heger Cohen, Shaye J. Why Aren't Jewish Women Circumcised? Gender and Covenant In Judaism. Berkeley: University of California Press. El Guindi, Fadwa El Dareer, Asma London: Zed Books.
Fiedler, Klaus Christianity and African Culture. Leiden: Brill. Gruenbaum, Ellen Hoberman, John Milton Testosterone Dreams: Rejuvenation, Aphrodisia, Doping. Hosken, Fran . Lexington: Women's International Network. Hyam, Ronald Empire and Sexuality: The British Experience. Manchester: Manchester University Press. Karanja, James Kenyatta, Jomo . Facing Mount Kenya. Kenyon, F. Greek Papyri in the British Museum. London: British Museum.
Kirby, Vicky In Nnaemeka, Obioma ed. Westport, Conn and London: Praeger. Korieh, Chima Kunhiyop, Samuel Waje African Christian Ethics. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. Mackie, Gerry Archived from the original PDF on 29 October Mandara, Mairo Usman McGregor, Deborah Kuhn New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. Nnaemeka, Obioma Nussbaum, Martha Sex and Social Justice. Nzegwu, Nkiru Peterson, Derek R. New York: Cambridge University Press. Roald, Ann-Sofie Women in Islam: The Western Experience.
London: Routledge. Robert, Dana Lee Macon: Mercer University Press. Rodriguez, Sarah B. El Saadawi, Nawal . The Hidden Face of Eve. Shorter, Edward New York: Simon and Schuster. Strayer, Robert; Murray, Jocelyn In Strayer, Robert ed.
Tamale, Sylvia In Tamale, Sylvia ed. Thomas, Lynn M. Thomas, Lynn Thomas, Robert The Modern Practice of Physick. Walley, Christine J. In James, Stanlie M. Genital Cutting and Transnational Sisterhood. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. Wildenthal, Lora Zabus, Chantal In Borch, Merete Falck ed. New York: Rodopi. In Bertacco, Simon ed. Language and Translation in Postcolonial Literatures. Swiss Medical Weekly. Sibiani, Sharifa A. September Fertility and Sterility. Journal of Medical Ethics.
Berer, Marge 30 June Berg, Rigmor C. BMJ Open. Health Care for Women International. Black, J. Black, John July Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine.
Cutner, Lawrence P. July Dave, Amish J. Dermatologic Clinics. Elchalal, Uriel; Ben-Ami, B. October Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Archived from the original PDF on 14 April El Dareer, A. June International Journal of Epidemiology. Elduma, Adel Hussein 15 February Gallard, Colette 17 June Gruenbaum, Ellen September—October Hayes, Rose Oldfield 17 June American Ethnologist.
Horowitz, Carol R. Carey; Teklemariam, Mamae 19 January New England Journal of Medicine. Britain claims it protects girls from FGM. So why are we deporting them? Charlotte Proudman. Published: 12 Sep Locked-out asylum seeker allowed to return to Home Office lodgings.
Contractor smashes in door just hours after evicting Gambian woman from Hounslow property. Published: 15 Aug Play Video. Ilhan Omar fires back at 'appalling' question on FGM — video. Published: 24 Jul Teach primary school children about FGM, say campaigners. Published: 20 Jul Published: 7 Jul I guard these things with my life'.
Published: AM. Senior Islamic cleric issues fatwa against child marriage. Mother jailed for 11 years in first British FGM conviction. Published: 8 Mar Published: 3 Mar Published: 1 Mar
FGM is still a human rights violation | FIGO
It includes all procedures that involve the partial or total removal of external genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. It is estimated that over million girls and women worldwide have suffered the effects of this practice and that approximately 3.
Human rights-based approaches to eradication include, but are not limited to, the enforcement of laws, education programs focused on empowerment, and campaigns to recruit change agents from within communities. Violence against women and girls affects females throughout the world and crosses cultural and economic boundaries. Throughout the past 20 years, extensive research has been done on such violence and its underlying causes and risk factors.
These interventions include large-scale campaigns, education programs, skills building and economic empowerment programming, community mobilization, and participatory group education efforts. Such interventions aim to change attitudes and norms that support violence against women and girls, thereby empowering women and girls economically and socially, as well as promoting nonviolent, gender-equitable behaviors.
The United Nations UN and the European Union have recently started a global multiyear initiative focused on eliminating all forms of violence against women and girls. While the initiative addresses all forms of violence against women and girls, it focuses in particular on domestic and family violence, sexual and gender-based violence and harmful practices, femicide, trafficking in human beings, and sexual and economic exploitation. This can have a positive impact on gender relations, sexual and reproductive health choices, and health-related behavior in general, thus accelerating progress in abandonment of the practice.
The procedure is painful and traumatic, and there are no health benefits. The immediate consequences, such as infections, are usually documented only when girls and women seek hospital treatment. In addition, scarring of the vulvar area may result in pain, including during sexual intercourse. Other reasons include ensuring fidelity after marriage, preventing rape, providing a source of income for circumcisers, and enhancing aesthetic appeal.
Immediate and long-term complications are common and can have a significant effect on the individual. Other beliefs suggest that an uncut clitoris creates male impotency and kills babies upon delivery. Unfortunately, in many countries, women and girls are not in full control of their lives, their liberty, or their bodies. Somalia is one of the few countries that has neither signed nor ratified this convention, indicating an unwillingness to recognize certain basic human rights.
The Convention on the Rights of the Child refers to the ever-evolving capacity of children to make their own decisions regarding matters that directly affect them. Several countries also impose monetary fines. Fines may apply only to practitioners or to anyone who knows it is happening and does not report it. The crime may cover only cutting in the country itself or include taking a girl to another country to have it done. The right to participate in cultural life and the right to freedom of religion are protected by international law.
However, such interventions can sometimes be perceived by communities as an unsolicited top-down approach. This increases community acceptance of an intervention, leading to its success. Education is often favored over other rights-based approaches, such as legislation, because it is less repressive. Contextualizing involves the full inclusion of the communities in planning the programs, such as by involving community members as facilitators or research assistants.
Cultural competency training can help improve health outcomes and the quality of care. The largest decline has been seen in Kenya and Burkina Faso, where there has been a very strong legal response, as well as community-based education efforts.
To transmit the message, the program used information, education, and communication materials, such as leaflets, booklets, training manuals, and guidebooks for professionals. Community members must actively take part in these programs, while the government must ensure that the law is enforced.
One successful rights-based health intervention has been to respect the importance of passage rites and promote alternatives that do not involve cutting. The goal is to find alternative income sources for these women and to reinvent their roles as the guardians of traditional culture, without the cutting. Many men feel that they too are victims of this practice and want to see it end.
The alliance is at the forefront of the international effort to accelerate the total elimination of violence against women and girls worldwide. The alliance advocates for support and strengthened grassroots work with a priority on developing tools that help optimize efforts at the local, regional, national, and international levels.
The involvement of men must complement current rights-based programs focusing on education and the empowerment of girls and women.
Influential males in communities where the practice is prevalent must lead programs as advocates while facilitating dialogue between men and women, their communities, and government bodies.
Education can serve to influence gender relations and thus accelerate progress in the abandonment of the practice. Gainful employment empowers women in various spheres of their lives, influencing their sexual and reproductive health choices, their education, and their health-related behavior in general.
Rights-based programs must be community led and must be tailored to take into consideration the ideological structure and ethnic and socioeconomic differences of each community. Beth D. Share this:. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email.