Complementary and alternative medicines CAMs are widely used by the general public. Natural products including plant-derived extracts phytochemicals and naturally derived substances, such as honey, are an important component of CAM. Here, we review the evidence for their use in wound care. Wound healing is complex and disruption of this process can lead to considerable morbidity, including chronic wounds, infection, and scarring. Natural products have a long history of use in wound care, but there are only a few rigorous studies.
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Rinse the area with water and hydrogen peroxide four times per day and repeat the solution application. Open wounds are a nightmare. Clothing Natural skin sore healer a cotton bandage is best, but you can also use sunscreen on it. Depending on the wound, there is still a risk of scarring. Also, the plastic packaging is a huge waste; think of all those plastic jars and bottles that later need to be disposed of, many of which are not recycled by customers. Apply this Natural skin sore healer to where the damage was and allow the haeler to get deeper heaper the layers. In lab tests, honey has been found to kill off the majority of bacterial cells and can prevent infections from occurring in the first place. According to the Mother Nature website, James J. Almond oil not only smells great, but it has anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, and antiseptic properties. Drink some ginger tea on a nightly basis to get this natural Naturral element into your system.
Significance: The regeneration of healthy and functional skin remains a huge challenge due to its multilayer structure and the presence of different cell types within the extracellular matrix in an organized way.
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- Not all wounds heal equally depending of the severity and the site of the trauma.
Complementary and alternative medicines CAMs are widely used by the general public. Natural products including plant-derived extracts phytochemicals and naturally derived substances, such as honey, are an important component of CAM. Here, we review the evidence for their use in wound care. Wound healing is complex and disruption of this process can lead to considerable morbidity, including chronic wounds, infection, and scarring.
Natural products have a long history of use in wound care, but there are only a few rigorous studies. With the growing interest in the use of natural products and the belief that they are safer than standard therapies, it is vital to understand the current knowledge of their efficacy and side effects. Natural products possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, angiogenic, and cell synthesis-modulating components among many others. However, this complex composition of chemicals may increase the risk for irritant or allergic side effects.
Natural products can be much cheaper than conventional treatments, but further study is needed to better understand their efficacy. The type of wound and the potential for side effects need to be carefully considered when choosing a treatment. The research to date is supportive of the use of natural products in wound care.
Patients need to be cautioned of potential side effects. Collaborative research between allopathic medicine and medical systems that frequently employ phytochemicals and naturally derived substances, such as Ayurveda and naturopathy, will provide a better understanding of how to integrate natural products into wound care.
A mericans frequently use complementary and alternative medicine CAM to treat their medical ailments, spending billions of dollars each year to do so. Alternative medical systems such as naturopathy and Ayurveda utilize herbal medications as an important part of therapy.
Naturally derived products have long been used in wound healing, but clinical investigation of these therapies is still in its infancy.
Whole-plant extracts or naturally occurring substances may contain multiple helpful chemicals such as antioxidants, antimicrobials, anti-inflammatory agents, and enhancers for re-epithelialization and collagen formation.
This can have a synergistic effect for wound healing. However, plant and naturally derived substances may have side effects including irritation and allergic hypersensitivities. Clin Dermatol ; Acute and chronic wounds are a widespread and common health issue, especially with the rise of obesity and diabetes. A delay in wound healing can lead to an increased risk for infection and worsened scarring, leading to increased morbidity and cost for continued medical care.
Although wound dressings can prevent desiccation and provide a protective barrier, many of the other claims regarding improvement of wound healing are often not supported by evidence. Because this field is still in its infancy, it is important to scientifically test the efficacy of naturally derived substances including plant-derived products phytochemicals and how these products should be integrated into wound care.
As wound healing research involving phytochemical and naturally derived substances progresses, it is vital to understand several general concepts. Naturally derived unpurified extracts are a complex mixture of many different chemicals that can individually have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, angiogenic, and cell synthesis-modulating properties.
This can lead to a myriad of beneficial effects over a single extract. The presence of a complex array of chemicals may lead to greater risk for irritant or allergic side effects. Testing for such allergies at the basic science level can become challenging when there are many potential chemicals that may act as a sensitizer or as an irritant. Extraction in an aqueous media will tend to extract hydrophilic substances; similarly, extraction in nonaqueous media will tend to extract hydrophobic substances.
Therefore, the extraction media may significantly alter the final composition of chemicals in an extraction process. At the same time, the presence of numerous chemicals limits the ability to discern the specific action of the individual chemicals within the extract. Aloe vera has long been used to treat various ailments of the skin. The derivative of many commercial aloe preparations comes not from the aloe sap but from the internal gel of the whole aloe leaf.
Extracts of aloe vera can stimulate the release of several growth factors; they also have antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory factors. Several clinical studies have evaluated the role of aloe vera in the healing of acute surgical wounds, 2 , 3 burn wounds, 4 and pressure ulcers.
In a randomized, placebo-controlled study involving second-degree burn wounds where patients were used as their own control, aloe vera was found to be superior to silver sulfadiazine in the rate of wound closure and there was no reported difference in infection rate.
Banana leaves have been studied as low-cost dressings for partial thickness burn wounds and donor sites. There were no reports of allergic or irritant reactions. Cocoa has a long history of use for various ailments including cutaneous burns and cuts; however, its effects on wound healing have not been well studied under rigorous methods.
The topical use of cocoa has been shown to improve re-epithelialization in second-degree burns in a porcine model, 8 but there have been no clinical studies that have assessed its utility in human wounds. Bark extracts are a rich source of plant polyphenols and tannins that have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and astringent properties. Several different bark extracts have been studied in wound healing. Aqueous bark extracts from Choerospondias axillaris Nepali Hog Plum were studied in an open, randomized, controlled trial of second-degree burn wounds and were shown to have accelerated wound closure time and lower wound infection rates when compared with saline gauze treatment.
A proprietary ointment Bensal HP that contained extracts from Quercus rubra oak bark was superior to sulfadizine in healing of diabetic ulcers in a randomized, controlled trial.
This corroborates previous studies in wound infection models that showed that Bensal HP can lower methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA carriage. Further, the lack of a control group eliminates the ability to assess the efficacy of this treatment to a standard treatment regimen. Turmeric is a natural spice that is derived from the Ayurvedic medical system in India. Turmeric contains curcumin as one of its components, which has been found to be a potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial agent.
Animal studies have shown that curcumin improves healing of excisional wounds, but there have been no human clinical studies to evaluate its role in wound healing. Used by bees as a sealant and containing both antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, propolis is derived from the hives of honeybees.
There has been one clinical study that assessed propolis for second-degree burn wounds in a single-blinded, controlled trial where each subject served as their own control. Propolis was superior to silver sulfadiazine in achieving wound closure with no difference in infection rates.
Honey is commonly used for wound healing purposes. In particular, Manuka honey shows greater activity against MRSA and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus than other forms of honey. This marks the first naturally derived substance that has been approved for wound care.
A systematic review of all the available well-done randomized, controlled clinical studies revealed that honey was beneficial in the treatment of acute burn wounds in comparison to conventional dressings such as Vaseline gauze, but offered no benefit in healing time when compared with silver sulfadiazine.
For chronic wounds, honey was found to be beneficial for pressure-induced wounds, infected postsurgical wounds, and Fournier's gangrene. This is not surprising as the pathophysiology of the delayed wound healing rests in the underlying vascular compromise rather than local factors. Although commercially available dressings, such as MEDIHONEY, are sterilized prior to use, the possibility of persistent spores precludes their use in young children to avoid the potentially devastating effects of botulism.
Within medical systems that rely on phytochemicals, such as traditional Chinese medicine, Ayurveda, and naturopathy, there are many herbs and plants that have to be yet explored for their therapeutic potential. Multiple components within an extract may have several different properties that can help with wound healing. As such, it is imperative that this demand be met with rigorous research in this arena. Early research has shown that naturally derived products can have beneficial effects, but they are not free of side effects either.
The wound needs to be carefully considered, in terms of an acute versus a chronic wound, and the appropriate research studies should be conducted. Alternative diagnoses must be entertained for nonhealing wounds such as a malignancy, a deeper infection, or an autoimmune process and the appropriate workup must be performed. For example, a malignancy would be better treated with surgery and an autoimmune process may be better treated with immunosupression.
The introduction of phytochemicals and naturally derived substances is an exciting innovation for wound healing. Studies are needed to better define the influence of the extraction technique on the final composition of the extract and the value of this knowledge is currently underappreciated. Collaborative efforts will be needed to develop future rigorous and thoughtful investigations into the role of naturally derived products for wound healing.
The authors have not specifically received funding for this work. The authors have no disclosures relevant to this work. No ghostwriters were used in the writing of this article. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Advances in Wound Care. Adv Wound Care New Rochelle. Raja K. Wehrli , 1, 2 and Emanual Maverakis 1, 2. Find articles by Raja K. Brian R. Find articles by Brian R.
Lisa N. Find articles by Lisa N. Find articles by Emanual Maverakis. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Aug Copyright , Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background Complementary and alternative medicines CAMs are widely used by the general public. The Problem Wound healing is complex and disruption of this process can lead to considerable morbidity, including chronic wounds, infection, and scarring.
Clinical Care Relevance Natural products can be much cheaper than conventional treatments, but further study is needed to better understand their efficacy.
Conclusion The research to date is supportive of the use of natural products in wound care. Open in a separate window. Background A mericans frequently use complementary and alternative medicine CAM to treat their medical ailments, spending billions of dollars each year to do so.
Target Articles. Clinical Problem Addressed Acute and chronic wounds are a widespread and common health issue, especially with the rise of obesity and diabetes. Relevant Basic Science Content As wound healing research involving phytochemical and naturally derived substances progresses, it is vital to understand several general concepts.
Discussion of Findings and Relevant Literature Phytochemicals Aloe vera Aloe vera has long been used to treat various ailments of the skin. Banana leaf Banana leaves have been studied as low-cost dressings for partial thickness burn wounds and donor sites.
Here are my top 15 natural home remedies for cuts, scrapes and bruises! It also blends easily with many different smells, so try in it homemade washes, masks or lotions. Cover the sore with this ointment and carefully place gauze over it. Clean the sore, apply the ointment and cover it with a bandage or gauze. Wounds and cuts heal faster if there is no pressure on them and if they are kept relatively motionless. Once the bleeding has stopped, mince a garlic clove and mix it with a small amount of water, making a paste. Make sure you buy a high-quality Manuka honey.
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Spread some honey on a dressing and apply this to the wound. If the wound is deeper, the wound bed should be filled with honey, then wrapped with a dressing pad. You can make a mix of 3 crushed garlic cloves and 1 cup of wine, blended, let stand for hours and strain. Apply to the wound with a clean cloth times a day. This beautiful little flower is considered a vulnerary agent a substance that promotes healing. This plant is an anti-inflammatory too, and is slightly anti-microbial.
It can be used topically to help heal abrasions, skin infections and internal infected mucous membranes. You can buy calendula salves at health food stores, and you can use this to apply to your wounds. For internal infections, make a calendula tea with 1 cup warm water and 1 tbsp.
Another flower with great wound healing properties — chamomile! The dried flowers contain many terpenoids and flavonoids, making it a powerful herbal medicine. Chamomile has even been found in some studies to be much faster at healing wounds than some corticosteroids.
Make a chamomile press for your wound by soaking some chamomile tea bags in water, lightly draining some of the liquid, and then wrapping these tea bags around your wound with some gauze. Alternatively, you can likely find chamomile tinctures or natural ointments in your local health food store. Marshmallow root is not the same as the sugary white cylinders you can find in the candy section at your grocery store — this plant is actually incredibly healing to wounds inflicted on the body.
Marshmallow is great for drawing out toxins and other bacteria found in wounds when used as a poultice, and it can shorten the healing time by drawing out impurities. It can also be used to heal burns and bruises! Creating a poultice with marshmallow and applying it to your wound can speed wound healing!
Potatoes can heal wounds? That was the first thing I thought too! Potatoes have this type of gravitational pull which draws out infections from any type of wound or abscess. Make a raw potato poultice with shredded potatoes and maintain this throughout the day, changing it every 4 hours or so and rinsing with salt water in between. This will ensure that inflammation is reduced and that there will be no chance of infection!
To make a poultice, shred raw potato with a grater, and spread this onto a clean cloth. Apply to the affected area, and cover with gauze and then some saran wrap or other material of choice. Leave overnight and remove in the morning. Clean affected area with salty water, cover with clean dressing and continue until healed.
He found that this oil promoted hasty tissue regeneration without any scarring! Use lavender essential oil to help promote natural wound healing.
Use topically times per day by applying drops on the wound area. Dilute as required! We all know aloe vera can help heal burns, but the sap from an aloe vera plant can also be used to treat cuts, scrapes and other sores.
Simply cutting off a stalk of the aloe vera plant and applying it to the wound every couple hours can significantly reduce healing time. This plant is known for its antiseptic and astringent properties. It can be used for cuts, wounds, infections, bites and stings and is also used internally to help treat sinus infections and inflammation of the stomach and intestinal tract. The main components of goldenseal are alkaloids called berberine and hydrastine which help destroy many types of bacterial and viral infections.
Use goldenseal ointment on your wounds found in local health stores , and watch your healing time drastically reduce! Tea tree essential oil is one of the best ways to treat a wound to help prevent infection. It is a great antiseptic, antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal. Tea tree oil is so effective that is can actively attack and eliminate staff infections such as MRSA.
The aborigines of Australia used tea tree leaves to heal skin infections and wounds and burns by crushing tea tree leaves and holding them in place with a mud pack. Thankfully, we can just use tea tree oil applied times a day to effectively heal our wounds quickly and efficiently. Coconut oil, amongst a million other things it can do, can effectively heal wounds! It has amazing antibacterial and antifungal properties and can even prevent scarring of wounds too!
Use coconut oil on your wound to help speed recovery — apply coconut oil under a band aid and re-fresh times a day. The antibiotic properties of silver are potent and the risk to human health in terms of toxicity is actually negligible.
To make it short, colloidal silver helps kill bacteria without damaging newly forming skin cells. It does not sting or burn. Other antiseptics sting when applied to a wound because they are killing the surrounding wall tissue cells.
Colloidal silver does not harm the surrounding cells or tissue. Some people use a silver spray and sprinkle the colloidal silver over the affected area to help heal wounds faster. Note that some clinical studies prove that natural silver — particularly colloidal silver — can destroy Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA pathogen quickly and effectively.
MRSA is a bacterium that can infect surgical wounds. What does colloidal do? Should you really be taking it? Essential oils, such as tea tree essential oil or clove oil, provide excellent treatment to heal cuts , scrapes and wounds. In this post I explain how to use it to treat cuts and minor wounds. Enjoying what you're reading? Subscribe to the newsletter and get our latest publications delivered to your inbox:.
Diet is definitely something to focus on. Whereas good nutrition facilitates healing, malnutrition can delay, inhibits and complicate the process.
In addition, nuts, seeds , polyunsaturated oils such as flax, olive, or hemp oil, whole grains and beans should be part of your diet. Eat vegetables and fruits to get plenty of vitamins and minerals. A wound diet supplementation can also help heal wounds faster. This herbal product combines several antioxidants, nutrients and enzymes, including calcium and potassium. But there are four in particular that are suspected of boosting the healing process : vitamin C, bromelain, rutin, and grape seed extract.
What foods and supplements are good for healing wounds? Wounds and cuts heal faster if there is no pressure on them and if they are kept relatively motionless. As a matter of fact, movement disrupts the formation of the new blood vessels.
Bandages keep the wound clean, keep harmful bacteria out, and maintain moisture to prevent your skin from drying out. You should change your bandage daily unless your doctor advised otherwise. Some experts say that after the wound has healed enough to make infection unlikely, exposure to the air may help to speed wound healing.
It creates a protective layer to keep the air out, prevents extensive scabbing, and speeds up the growth of new skin cells.
However, you may need medical wound care. Watch for signs of severity:. You may also need steri-strips or sutures to help close the wound. Sutures usually help heal wounds faster. Always see your doctor if you have any concerns about a wound. In the video below, Dr. Karen Evans answers commonly asked questions about wound healing, including the recovery time and benefits of new wound healing techniques:.
Because good nutrition is essential for wound healing, make sure your diet includes optimum amounts of protein, healthy fats, zinc, vitamin A and C. Also consider supplementing your diet with Inflammenz. There are many factors that may slow down the wound healing process. Wounds that take a long time to heal need special care.
Phytochemicals and Naturally Derived Substances for Wound Healing
Instead, it forms scars. These marks are not just cosmetic defects. Although scars seem to be thicker than normal skin, the tissue is actually weaker. Scarring seems to be an inevitable part of being human.
When Michael Harrison, a paediatric surgeon at the University of California, San Francisco, began to perform the first ever surgeries on fetuses, he noticed something curious about the babies who survived. Incisions he had made in them in the womb seemed to heal without scarring. Harrison asked Michael Longaker, a postdoctoral researcher in his laboratory, to investigate the phenomenon. Longaker was sceptical. Longaker, now a plastic surgeon with a focus on regenerative medicine at Stanford University in California, has not yet unravelled the mystery completely.
Nor have other researchers. Although many studies have provided valuable insight into how scarring occurs, they have yielded few clinically useful treatments. Yet many researchers are cautiously optimistic that a better understanding of the mechanisms that lead to scarring will pave the way for innovative strategies for reducing the formation of scar tissue.
The field of skin regeneration is moving in a different direction, Badylak says. Rather than growing skin in Petri dishes in the lab, and then transplanting it onto people, researchers are using the body as a bioreactor and encouraging skin to do what it did during fetal development — regenerate. Cut the skin and it will bleed. And then it will heal.
Initially, a clot forms to staunch blood flow, which kicks off a massive inflammatory response. Next, the wound begins to fill. Spindle-shaped cells known as fibroblasts migrate to the damaged area and churn out collagen and other proteins that provide tissue with structure. Within three weeks of the injury occurring, the wound has healed. But such speedy healing has a major downside.
These quick repairs often result in scars, particularly when the wound is deep. In healthy skin, collagen fibres form a lattice. But during wound healing, fibroblasts lay down collagen fibres parallel to each other, which creates tissue that is stiff and weak.
But large scars can be life-changing. That can be especially problematic when scars cover joints. Imagine, Gibson says, not being able to hold a fork or to raise your arms to wash your hair. But scarring might not be inevitable. Fetal skin begins to scar only late in gestation, which suggests that human skin possesses at least some regenerative capabilities.
All researchers have to do is to work out how to unlock them. Fetal wounds are not the only wounds that are resistant to scarring. Thomas Leung, a dermatologist at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, noticed that older people often develop thinner scars than do younger adults. To understand why, Leung turned to mice. In one-month-old animals, such wounds healed with a thick scar and never closed fully — similar to earring holes in people, Leung says.
In month-old mice, which are roughly equivalent to year-old people, healing took longer, but the holes closed completely, and with less scarring.
The same observations held for wounds on the backs of the mice. Fluorescence micrograph of human skin fibroblasts. Leung and his colleagues wondered whether a component of the blood of young mice promotes scar formation. To test the idea, they joined together old and young mice, giving them a shared circulatory system through a surgical technique called parabiosis. The team found that exposure to the blood of young animals caused wounds in elderly mice to scar 1.
Further experiments revealed the probable culprit: Cxcl12 , a gene that encodes a protein called stromal cell-derived factor 1 SDF1. When the team knocked out SDF1, even wounds in young animals healed with minimal scarring. This discovery suggests a route towards scar-free wound healing in people: suppressing the activity of CXCL The drug is used to mobilize stem cells from bone marrow in people with certain types of cancer.
Leung and his colleagues hope to test whether plerixafor can minimize the recurrence of keloids — thick, raised scars that tend to keep growing — in a clinical trial. The team is also looking at how SDF1 promotes initial scar formation. Scarring is a complex process, and SDF1 is only part of the story. Fibroblasts are another prominent player. These cells have long been blamed for scar tissue. But research in the past five years has revealed that fibroblasts comprise a diverse group of cells, and that some seem to have a larger role in scar formation than do others.
Although some fibroblasts are clear drivers of scar formation, other research suggests that fibroblasts also contribute to regenerative healing. About a decade ago, George Cotsarelis, a dermatologist at the Perelman School of Medicine, and his colleagues were trying to develop a mouse model to understand the role of stem cells in hair follicles. Scientists had long thought that when an adult hair follicle is lost, it is gone for ever. But then the team noticed something odd: when they made a large wound on the back of a genetically normal mouse, hair regrew in the middle of the wound 3.
In , a team led by Cotsarelis showed in mice that new hair follicles secrete growth factors called bone morphogenetic proteins BMPs that can transform fibroblasts into fat cells 4.
Human fibroblasts also seem able to make the leap from fibroblast to fat. When the team took such cells from a keloid scar and exposed them to a BMP, or placed them near a BMP-secreting hair follicle, they too turned into fat cells. These findings suggest that it might be possible to prod injured skin towards regeneration rather than scar formation. But translating the work into a treatment protocol poses considerable difficulties, Cotsarelis says.
Skin regeneration will require the right signals to be delivered at the right time, and at the right dose. Altering those gradients, even slightly, might alter the follicle pattern or even function. Their skin is loose, whereas that of humans is tight. In search of a better model, in , Ashley Seifert, a developmental and regenerative biologist at the University of Kentucky in Lexington, travelled to Kenya and began to study African spiny mice Acomys kempi and Acomys percivali — species with a unique defence mechanism.
Because their skin tears easily, these mice can escape the jaws of predators. Seifert expected to find that such mice had speedy wound-repair processes or ways of preventing infection. The spiny mouse is one of only a few mammalian models of skin regeneration.
But such mice provide a comparative framework. Seifert can punch a hole in the ear of a spiny mouse, which regenerates, and another in the ear of a conventional lab mouse, which does not, and then evaluate how the healing process differs. His team is now beginning to define those differences. Reindeer antler velvet has regenerative properties.
Some seem to involve the immune system. Researchers tend to view inflammation as an impediment to regenerative healing. Accordingly, the difference between scar formation in adults and the fetus might be that adults mount a strong inflammatory response after injury whereas a fetus does not.
But a connection between inflammation and regeneration has been difficult to establish. And he and his colleagues have found, at least in spiny mice, that inflammation does not preclude regenerative healing.
In the wild, these mice mount a strong inflammatory response yet still manage to regenerate skin. In , he and his colleagues showed that macrophages, immune cells that are a key orchestrator of inflammation that is typically associated with scarring, are also required for regenerative healing in spiny mice 6.
Now, the team is trying to determine which factors might tip macrophages and other immune cells away from scarring pathways and towards regeneration. A much larger mammal — reindeer Rangifer tarandus — is also providing insight into the regenerative potential of skin. Both male and female animals sprout new antlers each year. The downy velvet that covers the antlers as they grow is remarkably similar to human skin — thick with blood vessels, hair follicles and sebaceous glands.
But it differs in one important way. That capacity for regeneration seems to be inherent to the velvet. They hope that the comparison will help them to better understand the signals that prompt velvet to regenerate, and perhaps lead them to treatments that promote regeneration and prevent scarring.
Skin regeneration is still a distant goal, but several companies are working to bring wound-healing therapies to market. The spray-on skin system approved by the Food and Drug Administration earlier this year, and marketed as ReCell by biotechnology company Avita Medical in Valencia, California, is an example of an early success. People with burns who require skin grafts typically receive pieces of skin that are harvested from unaffected parts of their bodies.
Surgeons take only the top layers of skin to create these grafts, which are known as split-thickness grafts. Although split-thickness grafts can be cut into a mesh that covers an area about three times their size, ReCell can treat skin wounds that are 80 times larger than the donor piece of skin. ReCell can also be combined with meshed grafts to treat deeper burns.
It comprises two layers of collagen: a bottom layer that is seeded with human fibroblasts and a top layer that is seeded with cells that give rise to keratinocytes.
Such therapies could be a boon for people with burns. Other companies are working on treatments for tricky-to-heal wounds, such as ulcers in people with diabetes or bedsores.
But the main goal of these treatments is to promote better healing, rather than to prompt skin to regenerate. However, she is optimistic that if clinicians who treat skin wounds collaborate closely with researchers who are working to understand scarring, the problem can be solved. This article is part of Nature Outlook: Skin , an editorially independent supplement produced with the financial support of third parties.
About this content. Nishiguchi, M. Cell Rep.