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You can continue to breastfeed even when you have a mastitis infection because the bacteria are not harmful to your baby. Pyogenic infections are the commonest with a variety of causative bacteria. There were a few options, Hogan thought. Buyer beware no matter where you go. She was then seen by Hogan, a fellow Women with breast infection in brazil infectious diseases at Massachusetts General Hospital. Radiological investigations such as mammography is limited in this setting due to the inflammatory pain which makes it difficult to achieve adequate compression for a good exposure. Unfortunately, the antibiotics have serious side effects, including irreversible hearing loss. Gay tgp thumb infection. These are infected lumps that occur under the areola. In conclusion, non-lactating breast infections are an infrequent Women with breast infection in brazil entity occurring in women with obscure underlying predisposing condition. What Causes Breast Swelling? Clin Radiol. Percutaneous management of breast abscesses.
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- A breast infection, also known as mastitis, is an infection that occurs within the tissue of the breast.
- Breast infection in lactating mothers is a common entity which in the majority of cases can be explained by ascending infections.
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The aim of this study is to investigate the presence of human papillomavirus DNA and genotypes in breast cancer and normal breast tissue samples obtained from women from the northeast region of Brazil.
One hundred three breast cancer samples and 95 normal breast samples, as the non-malignant controls, were studied. Human papillomavirus DNA was detected in 51 Human papillomavirus genotypes 6 and 11 were identified in The high frequency of human papillomavirus infection in breast cancer samples indicates a potential role of this virus in breast carcinogenesis in the studied participants. Approximately 1. In Brazil, approximately 57, new cases of BC were expected in , which is equivalent to an estimated risk of 5, for each , women 2.
Several risk factors are described for BC, such as age, family history, weight, physical activity, oral contraceptive use, and alcohol consumption 3. Reinforcing the putative carcinogenesis in BC, HPV has several ways of subverting an effective immune response that may contribute to persistence 6.
The HPV E6 and E7 proteins are known for blocking p Rb and p 53 tumour suppressor genes, contributing to oncogenesis 6. The conserved region for the capsid protein L1 ORF is used to classify HPV types to different genera or virus species within a genus 7 , 8. However, there are geographical differences in the distribution of HPV types found in BC among populations 14 , 17 , This was a cross-sectional study conducted from July to December in Fortaleza, Northeast Brazil.
A total of specimens were selected, of which were primary BC samples and 95 were NB tissues with no malignancy. The controls were breast samples obtained from cosmetic reduction mammoplasties of women without a prior history of breast neoplasm. Thus, in this study, the women were stratified into three age groups: younger than 42 years, between 42 and 51 years, and older than 51 years. Patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy or radiation therapy were excluded from the study.
A skin punch was used to collect a 3-mm-diameter core from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples. All tissue sections were taken after removal of the surgical specimen. Prior to this, haematoxylin and eosin HE staining was performed to identify the tumour site in each tissue block. In the NB control samples, areas containing ducts and mammary lobules were selected. The tissue fragments obtained from BC cases and NB controls were placed in 1.
Before deparaffinization, excess paraffin was removed from each tissue section using sterile blades. Deparaffinization of embedded samples was conducted following the protocol described in Nascimento et al. At the end of the process, the tissues were rehydrated in 1 ml of ultrapure water. The PCR amplification conditions were as previously described The type-specific primers were combined in two multiplex PCR amplifications for identifying genotypes corresponding to low and high oncogenic risk.
Primer mix 1 generates fragments with lengths of , , , , and bp corresponding to HPV types 16, 18, 31, 59, and 45, respectively. HPV typing was conducted as described in Sotlar et al. All procedures were conducted by the same technician using the same methods. False-positive amplifications were addressed using individual sterile sectioning blades for cutting the paraffin-embedded tissues, and sterile glassware were used for all samples. Physical separation of areas for sample handling, PCR preparation, and PCR analysis was diligently practised throughout the study.
Sequences were analysed using SecScape software v. The reference sequence for HPV type 11 isolate 83A. The age ranges were from 27 to 97 years mean of However, no differences were observed regarding HPV infection status and different age groups in the NB group. Seven Additionally, one 6. HPV type 33 was also identified in two 3. Regarding samples that were positive for HPV types corresponding to a high oncogenic risk, 7.
HPV positivity in breast cancers and normal breasts by genotypes and risk group for carcinogenesis. In addition, a year-old patient was positive for HPV 45 data not shown. In Brazil, the HPV genotypes used for vaccination are 6, 11, 16, and HPV types 6 and 11 are classified as having a low oncogenic potential for the lower genital tract. In addition, these viral genotypes are generally associated with benign genital warts, known as condylomas 3 , 7.
In a similar way, a study conducted in Rio de Janeiro with cervical cancer patients 25 have found low-risk types in tumour samples. Another study also indicated that women who develop viral warts are at a significantly higher risk of developing BC 26 ; low-risk HPV types are causal agents of genital warts 3 , 7.
In addition, a study conducted with oral cancer in patients had also suggested that separating high- and low-risk groups based on the HPV status of other body parts might not be appropriate Nevertheless, the majority of the studies have reported the presence of high-risk HPV in BC samples 11 , 13 , 16 , 17 , In the southern region of Brazil, a study conducted with paraffin-embedded breast carcinoma samples using specific primers for two HPV types, namely, types 16 and 18, found a predominance of HPV type 16 Therefore, there is a broad range of distribution of HPV genotypes in BC samples, depending on the geographical region.
Lawson et al. Considering the size of a country such as Brazil, it is possible to explain the diversity based on the geographic distribution of this virus. However, the only previous study conducted in Brazil 16 used two primer sets specific for types 16 and 18, which may have made the detection of other genotypes difficult. The introduction of new molecular detection technologies has enabled the discovery of new HPV types, and it is now estimated that there are at least different HPV types Thus, assays using type-specific primers have limitations that must be considered, as these assays may not reveal the presence of all genotypes in samples.
Thus, the likelihood HPV infection decreases with age. A study conducted in Lublin, Poland 15 , with a similar design as ours, demonstrated a direct correlation between the presence of HPV DNA and patient age. In fact, the observation of higher frequency of HPV positivity in younger women has been supported by several studies, which demonstrated an association between HPV infection in younger BC patients and the frequency of their sexual activity 28 , 33 , In addition, the higher frequency of HPV infection in BC patients younger than 42 years may be explained by the modulation of carcinogenesis by female hormones.
Thus, it has been hypothesized that HPV drives mechanisms to promote cell proliferation Several risk factors, including young age at onset of sexual activity and high number of sexual partners, are related to exposure to HPV.
For example, the use of contraceptives may contribute to increased sexual behaviour in women and can increase their exposure to and risk of HPV infections According to Karlsen et al. In addition, we also demonstrated a high frequency of the low-risk viral genotypes, namely, HPV types 6 and 11, in these BC and NB samples. The presence of low and high-risk types suggests a potential role of this virus in breast carcinogenesis in the studied participants. Thus, further studies are needed to understand the role of HPV infection in breast carcinogenesis, including among women vaccinated against high-risk HPV types.
Cavalcante JR designed the study, gathered and analyzed the data, and wrote the manuscript. Pinheiro LG designed the study and analyzed and interpreted the data.
Frota CC designed the study, analyzed and interpreted the data, and wrote and critically revised the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript. No potential conflict of interest was reported. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Clinics Sao Paulo v. Clinics Sao Paulo. Published online Oct 5. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Corresponding author. E-mail: moc. Received Nov 22; Accepted Apr METHOD: One hundred three breast cancer samples and 95 normal breast samples, as the non-malignant controls, were studied. Tissue samples A skin punch was used to collect a 3-mm-diameter core from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Deparaffinization of tissue sections Before deparaffinization, excess paraffin was removed from each tissue section using sterile blades.
Open in a separate window. Table 3 HPV positivity in breast cancers and normal breasts by genotypes and risk group for carcinogenesis. Figure 1. Footnotes No potential conflict of interest was reported. Presence of papillomavirus sequences in condylomatous lesions of the mamillae and in invasive carcinoma of the breast.
Breast Cancer Res. Human papilloma virus DNAs immortalize normal human mammary epithelial cells and reduce their growth factor requirements. Munger K, Jones DL. Human papillomavirus carcinogenesis: an identity crisis in the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor pathway. J Virol. Classification of papillomaviruses. Classification of papillomaviruses PVs based on PV types and proposal of taxonomic amendments. Cross-roads in the classification of papillomaviruses. International standardization and classification of human papillomavirus types.
High prevalence of human papillomaviruses in fresh frozen breast cancer samples. J Med Virol.
In addition, mammographic features in infections are nonspecific demonstrating speculated masses that can be indistinguishable from infiltrating cancer. Primary actinomycosis of the breast: a clinical review and case report. There are many possible causes for a rash under the breast, including infections, allergies, autoimmune disorders, and cancer. An experienceof 39 cases. By Eric Boodman.
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Skip to search form Skip to main content. Survival of breast cancer women in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil. View PDF. Save to Library. Create Alert. Share This Paper. Tables and Topics from this paper. Citations Publications citing this paper. Breast cancer screening in Brazil.
Barriers related to the health system. A review of breast cancer care and outcomes in Latin America. Breast cancer in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus HIV -infected women from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: a cases series report and an incidence rate estimate. References Publications referenced by this paper. Interpretation of population-based cancer survival data. Roy J. Ayanian , Betsy A. Kohler , Toshi Abe , Arnold M. Selective referral to high-volume hospitals: estimating potentially avoidable deaths.
Long-term inequalities in breast cancer survival--a ten year follow-up study of patients managed within a National Health Care System Sweden. Surgery is associated with lower morbidity and longer survival in elderly breast cancer patients over Survival of breast cancer patients. Our experience. Meeting highlights: international expert consensus on the primary therapy of early breast cancer Aron Goldhirsch , John H. Do younger female breast cancer patients have a poorer prognosis?
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