Latin name for cormorant-- Phalacrocoracidae of China - 中国的鸬鹚科 -

The cormorant and the pelican are also used by the Indus boatmen as in China for fishing. One day, as St. Bartholomew was sitting on the sea-shore, a cormorant pulled the edge of his garment with its bill. In some countries there is a price on his head--that is, so much money is given for every Cormorant killed. Then the thirteenth cormorant arose, and flew right over the island.

Latin name for cormorant

Latin name for cormorant

Latin name for cormorant

When the bird returns to the fisherman's raft, clrmorant fisherman helps the bird to remove the fish from its throat. Traditional forms of ukai can be seen on the Nagara River in the city of GifuGifu Prefecturewhere cormorant fishing has continued uninterrupted for years, or in the city of InuyamaAichi. After fishing, cormorants go ashore, and are frequently seen holding their wings out in the sun. Murray, Bertram G. The subspecies P. Sometimes the same species is called a cormorant in one part of the world and a shag in another, e. On the Seashore R. Look up cormorant in Latin name for cormorant, the free dictionary. Retrieved JAN

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Flr Read Edit Latin name for cormorant history. Cruise date: 19 Jan - 6 Feb, The taxa in question are:. Lwtin Tets proposed to divide the family into two genera and attach the name "cormorant" to one and "shag" to the other, Latin name for cormorant this flies in the face of common usage and has not been widely adopted. This bony projection provides anchorage for the muscles that increase the force with which the lower mandible is closed. Do cormorants have any natural predators? Retrieved nzme July For populations nesting in the Great Lakes region, it is believed that the colonization of the lakes by the non-native alewife a small prey fish has provided optimal Latin name for cormorant conditions and hence good Pron internet tv success. All are fish-eaters, dining on small eelsfish, and even water snakes. In breeding colonies where the nests are placed on the ground, young cormorants leave their nests and congregate into groups with other youngsters creches. What are cormorant birthing cormorrant like? Pending a thorough review of the Recent and prehistoric cormorants, the single-genus approach [18] is followed here for three reasons: first, it is preferable to tentatively assigning genera without a robust hypothesis. Abbott's booby.

The Phalacrocoracidae family of birds is represented by 38 species of cormorants and shags.

  • Carbo auritus Lesson, Dilophalieus auritus Lesson, Phalacrocorax dilophus.
  • Australocorax Lambrecht , Compsohalieus B.

Australocorax Lambrecht , Compsohalieus B. Phalacrocoracidae is a family of approximately 40 species of aquatic birds commonly known as cormorants and shags. Several different classifications of the family have been proposed recently, and the number of genera is disputed. The great cormorant P. Cormorants and shags are medium-to-large birds, with body weight in the range of 0.

The majority of species have dark feathers. The bill is long, thin and hooked. Their feet have webbing between all four toes. All species are fish-eaters, catching the prey by diving from the surface. They have relatively short wings due to their need for economical movement underwater, and consequently have the highest flight costs of any flying bird. Cormorants nest in colonies around the shore, on trees, islets or cliffs.

They are coastal rather than oceanic birds, and some have colonised inland waters — indeed, the original ancestor of cormorants seems to have been a fresh-water bird. No consistent distinction exists between cormorants and shags.

The names 'cormorant' and 'shag' were originally the common names of the two species of the family found in Great Britain , Phalacrocorax carbo now referred to by ornithologists as the great cormorant and P. As other species were encountered by English-speaking sailors and explorers elsewhere in the world, some were called cormorants and some shags, depending on whether they had crests or not. Sometimes the same species is called a cormorant in one part of the world and a shag in another, e.

Van Tets proposed to divide the family into two genera and attach the name "cormorant" to one and "shag" to the other, but this flies in the face of common usage and has not been widely adopted.

Cormoran is the Cornish name of the sea giant in the tale of Jack the Giant Killer. Indeed, "sea raven" or analogous terms were the usual terms for cormorants in Germanic languages until after the Middle Ages. Cormorants and shags are medium-to-large seabirds. The recently extinct spectacled cormorant Phalacrocorax perspicillatus was rather larger, at an average size of 6. The majority, including nearly all Northern Hemisphere species, have mainly dark plumage , but some Southern Hemisphere species are black and white, and a few e.

The bill is long, thin, and sharply hooked. Their feet have webbing between all four toes, as in their relatives. They range around the world, except for the central Pacific islands. All are fish-eaters, dining on small eels , fish, and even water snakes.

Under water they propel themselves with their feet, though some also propel themselves with their wings see the picture, [4] commentary, [5] and existing reference video [6]. After fishing, cormorants go ashore, and are frequently seen holding their wings out in the sun. All cormorants have preen gland secretions that are used ostensibly to keep the feathers waterproof. Some sources [7] state that cormorants have waterproof feathers while others say that they have water permeable feathers.

A detailed study of the great cormorant concludes that it is without doubt [13] to dry the plumage. Cormorants are colonial nesters, using trees, rocky islets, or cliffs. The eggs are a chalky-blue colour. There is usually one brood a year. The young are fed through regurgitation.

They typically have deep, ungainly bills, showing a greater resemblance to those of the pelicans , to which they are related, than is obvious in the adults. The cormorants are a group traditionally placed within the Pelecaniformes or, in the Sibley—Ahlquist taxonomy , the expanded Ciconiiformes. This latter group is certainly not a natural one, and even after the tropicbirds have been recognised as quite distinct, the remaining Pelecaniformes seem not to be entirely monophyletic.

Notwithstanding, all evidence agrees that the cormorants and shags are closer to the darters and Sulidae gannets and boobies , and perhaps the pelicans or even penguins , than to all other living birds.

In recent years, three preferred treatments of the cormorant family have emerged: either to leave all living cormorants in a single genus, Phalacrocorax , or to split off a few species such as the imperial shag complex in Leucocarbo and perhaps the flightless cormorant. Pending a thorough review of the Recent and prehistoric cormorants, the single-genus approach [18] is followed here for three reasons: first, it is preferable to tentatively assigning genera without a robust hypothesis.

Second, it makes it easier to deal with the fossil forms, the systematic treatment of which has been no less controversial than that of living cormorants and shags. Third, this scheme is also used by the IUCN , [19] making it easier to incorporate data on status and conservation.

In accordance with the treatment there, the imperial shag complex is here left unsplit as well, but the king shag complex has been. The cormorants and the darters have a unique bone on the back of the top of the skull known as the os nuchale or occipital style which was called a xiphoid process in early literature. This bony projection provides anchorage for the muscles that increase the force with which the lower mandible is closed. Several evolutionary groups are still recognizable. However, combining the available evidence suggests that there has also been a great deal of convergent evolution ; for example the cliff shags are a convergent paraphyletic group.

The proposed division into Phalacrocorax sensu stricto or subfamily "Phalacrocoracinae" cormorants and Leucocarbo sensu lato or "Leucocarboninae" shags [24] does indeed have some degree of merit. The family contains three genera: [26]. Cormorants seem to be a very ancient group, with similar ancestors reaching back to the time of the dinosaurs. In fact, the earliest known modern bird, Gansus yumenensis , had essentially the same structure. Even the technique of using the distribution and relationships of a species to figure out where it came from, biogeography, usually very informative, does not give very specific data for this probably rather ancient and widespread group.

However, the closest living relatives of the cormorants and shags are the other families of the suborder Sulae — darters and gannets and boobies —which have a primarily Gondwanan distribution. Hence, at least the modern diversity of Sulae probably originated in the southern hemisphere.

Similarly, the origin of the family is shrouded in uncertainties. Some Late Cretaceous fossils have been proposed to belong with the Phalacrocoracidae: A scapula from the Campanian - Maastrichtian boundary, about 70 mya million years ago , was found in the Nemegt Formation in Mongolia; it is now in the PIN collection. A Maastrichtian Late Cretaceous, c. As the Early Oligocene Sula" ronzoni cannot be assigned to any of the suloid families—cormorants and shags, darters, and gannets and boobies—with certainty, the best interpretation is that the Phalacrocoracidae diverged from their closest ancestors in the Early Oligocene, perhaps some 30 million years ago, and that the Cretaceous fossils represent ancestral suloids, "pelecaniforms" or "higher waterbirds"; at least the last lineage is generally believed to have been already distinct and undergoing evolutionary radiation at the end of the Cretaceous.

What can be said with near certainty is that AMNH FR is from a diving bird that used its feet for underwater locomotion; as this is liable to result in some degree of convergent evolution and the bone is missing indisputable neornithine features, it is not entirely certain that the bone is correctly referred to this group. During the late Paleogene, when the family presumably originated, much of Eurasia was covered by shallow seas, as the Indian Plate finally attached to the mainland.

Lacking a detailed study, it may well be that the first "modern" cormorants were small species from eastern, south-eastern or southern Asia, possibly living in freshwater habitat, that dispersed due to tectonic events.

Such a scenario would account for the present-day distribution of cormorants and shags and is not contradicted by the fossil record; as remarked above, a thorough review of the problem is not yet available.

Two distinct genera of prehistoric cormorants are widely accepted today, if Phalacrocorax is used for all living species:. The proposed genus Oligocorax appears to be paraphyletic — the European species have been separated in Nectornis , and the North American ones are placed in the expanded Phalacrocorax. A Late Oligocene fossil cormorant foot from Enspel , Germany, sometimes placed herein, would then be referable to Nectornis if it proves not to be too distinct. All these early European species might belong to the basal group of "microcormorants", as they conform with them in size and seem to have inhabited the same habitat: subtropical coastal or inland waters.

Limicorallus , meanwhile, was initially believed to be a rail or a dabbling duck by some. There are also undescribed remains of apparent cormorants from the Quercy Phosphorites of Quercy France , dating to some time between the Late Eocene and the mid- Oligocene. Some other Paleogene remains are sometimes assigned to the Phalacrocoracidae, but these birds seem quite intermediate between cormorants and darters and lack clear autapomorphies of either.

Thus, they may be quite basal members of the Palacrocoracoidea. The taxa in question are:. The remaining species are, in accordance with the scheme used in this article, all placed in the modern genus Phalacrocorax :. The former "Phalacrocorax" or "Oligocorax" mediterraneus is now considered to belong to the bathornithid Paracrax antiqua. Humans have used cormorants' fishing skills in various places in the world.

Archaeological evidence suggests that cormorant fishing was practiced in Ancient Egypt, Peru, Korea and India, but the strongest tradition has remained in China and Japan, where it reached commercial-scale level in some areas.

Traditional forms of ukai can be seen on the Nagara River in the city of Gifu , Gifu Prefecture , where cormorant fishing has continued uninterrupted for years, or in the city of Inuyama , Aichi.

In Guilin , Guangxi , cormorants are famous for fishing on the shallow Li River. In Gifu, the Japanese cormorant P. In a common technique, a snare is tied near the base of the bird's throat, which allows the bird only to swallow small fish.

When the bird captures and tries to swallow a large fish, the fish is caught in the bird's throat. When the bird returns to the fisherman's raft, the fisherman helps the bird to remove the fish from its throat. Cormorants feature in heraldry and medieval ornamentation, usually in their "wing-drying" pose, which was seen as representing the Christian cross, and symbolizing nobility and sacrifice. For John Milton in Paradise Lost , the cormorant symbolizes greed : perched atop the Tree of Life , Satan took the form of a cormorant as he spied on Adam and Eve during his first intrusion into Eden.

In some Scandinavian areas, they are considered good omen; in particular, in Norwegian tradition spirits of those lost at sea come to visit their loved ones disguised as cormorants. The symbolic liver bird of Liverpool is commonly thought to be a cross between an eagle and a cormorant. In , a woman wearing a dress made of cormorant feathers was found on San Nicolas Island , off the southern coast of California. She had sewn the feather dress together using whale sinews. The woman had lived alone on the island for 18 years before being rescued.

When removed from San Nicolas, she brought with her a green cormorant dress she made; this dress is reported to have been removed to the Vatican. The bird has inspired numerous writers, including Amy Clampitt , who wrote a poem called "The Cormorant in its Element". The species she described may have been the pelagic cormorant , which is the only species in the temperate U. The cormorant served as the hood ornament for the Packard automobile brand.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Species of aquatic birds. For other uses, see Cormorant disambiguation. Main article: Cormorant fishing. Further information: Birds in culture. Retrieved 27 July

Gannets and boobies family : Sulidae Genus Species. Reproduction They first breed at 3 years of age in nesting colonies, sometimes with other wading birds. Appearance : Black backs and wings, white face and bellies. The taxa in question are:. In fact, the earliest known modern bird, Gansus yumenensis , had essentially the same structure.

Latin name for cormorant

Latin name for cormorant

Latin name for cormorant

Latin name for cormorant

Latin name for cormorant

Latin name for cormorant. Navigation menu

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Great cormorant - Wikipedia

This article contains made-up species! This article contains made-up species not found on Earth. They will be highlighted in pink. The bird family Phalacrocoracidae is represented by some 40 species of cormorants and shags. Several different classifications of the family have been proposed recently, and the number of genera is disputed.

There is no consistent distinction between cormorants and shags. The names "cormorant" and "shag" were originally the common names of the two species of the family found in Great Britain , Phalacrocorax carbo now referred to by ornithologists as the Great Cormorant and P. As other species were discovered by English-speaking sailors and explorers elsewhere in the world, some were called cormorants and some shags, depending on whether they had crests or not.

Sometimes the same species is called a cormorant in one part of the world and a shag in another, e. Van Tets proposed to divide the family into two genera and attach the name "Cormorant" to one and "Shag" to the other, but this flies in the face of common usage and has not been widely adopted.

This is often thought to refer to the creamy white patch on the cheeks of adult Great Cormorants , or the ornamental white head plumes prominent in Mediterranean birds of this species, but is certainly not a unifying characteristic of cormorants. Cormoran is the Cornish name of the sea giant in the tale of Jack the Giant Killer.

Indeed, "sea raven" or analogous terms were the usual terms for cormorants in Germanic languages until after the Middle Ages. The word cormorant is pronounced Template:IPA-en , with the stress on the first syllable. Cormorants and shags are medium-to-large seabirds.

The recently-extinct Spectacled Cormorant Phalacrocorax perspicillatus was rather larger, at an average size of 6. The majority, including nearly all Northern Hemisphere species, have mainly dark plumage , but some Southern Hemisphere species are black and white, and a few e. The bill is long, thin, and sharply hooked.

Their feet have webbing between all four toes, as in their relatives. They range around the world, except for the central Pacific islands. All are fish -eaters, dining on small eels , fish, and even water snakes. Under water they propel themselves with their feet. Some cormorant species have been found, using depth gauges , to dive to depths of as much as 45 metres. After fishing, cormorants go ashore, and are frequently seen holding their wings out in the sun. All cormorants have preen gland secretions that are used ostensibly to keep the feathers waterproof.

Some sources [2] state that cormorants have waterproof feathers while others say that they have water permeable feathers. A detailed study of the Great Cormorant concludes that it is without doubt [8] to dry the plumage. Cormorants are colonial nesters, using trees, rocky islets, or cliffs. The eggs are a chalky-blue colour. There is usually one brood a year.

The young are fed through regurgitation. They typically have deep, ungainly bills, showing a greater resemblance to those of the pelicans ', to which they are related, than is obvious in the adults. The cormorants are a group traditionally placed within the Pelecaniformes or, in the Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy , the expanded Ciconiiformes. This latter group is certainly not a natural one, and even after the tropicbirds have been recognized as quite distinct, the remaining Pelecaniformes seem not to be entirely monophyletic.

In recent years, three preferred treatments of the cormorant family have emerged: either to leave all living cormorants in a single genus, Phalacrocorax , or to split off a few species such as the Imperial Shag complex in Leucocarbo and perhaps the Flightless Cormorant. Pending a thorough review of the Recent and prehistoric cormorants, the single-genus approach [13] is followed here for three reasons: First, it is preferable to tentatively assigning genera without a robust hypothesis.

Second, it makes it easier to deal with the fossil forms, the systematic treatment of which has been no less controversial than that of living cormorants and shags. Third, this scheme is also used by the IUCN , [14] making it easier to incorporate data on status and conservation.

In accordance with the treatment there, the Imperial Shag complex is here left unsplit as well, but the King Shag complex has been. Several evolutionary groups are still recognizable. However, combining the available evidence suggests that there has also been a great deal of convergent evolution ; for example the "cliff shags" are a convergent paraphyletic group.

The proposed division into Phalacrocorax sensu stricto or subfamily Phalacrocoracinae "cormorants" and Leucocarbo sensu lato or Leucocarboninae "shags" [15] does indeed have some degree of merit - though not as originally intended - but fails to account for basal lineages and the fact that the entire family cannot be clearly divided at present beyond the superspecies or species-complex level.

This list attempts to follow a phylogenetic order. The first two lineages and possibly the Flightless Cormorant are basal and cannot be assigned to either subfamily. Basal lineage 1: "Microcormorants", proposed genus Microcarbo or Halietor "Phalacrocoracinae" ; the former genus name would be valid.

Basal lineage 2: Red-legged Cormorant. Included in Leucocarbo or Stictocarbo "Leucocarboninae". The Double-crested Cormorant 's crests are normally not visible. Blue-eyed shags and relatives: variously placed in Euleucocarbo , Hypoleucos , Leucocarbo , Notocarbo and Stictocarbo "Leucocarboninae" , and the monotypic Nannopterum.

North Pacific shags: spread between Compsohalieus "Phalacrocoracinae" and Stictocarbo "Leucocarboninae". If a distinct genus, the former name would apply. Common Shag lineage: formerly in Compsohalieus "Phalacrocoracinae" and Stictocarbo "Leucocarboninae". Hypoleucos would be the correct genus name if they were split off. Spotted group: placed in Stictocarbo "Leucocarboninae" ; indeed, they would be the only members of this possibly distinct genus. True cormorants: these would be retained in Phalacrocorax no matter how the cormorants and shags are split up.

Cormorants seem to be a very ancient group, with similar ancestors reaching all the way back to the time of the dinosaurs. In fact, the very earliest known modern bird, Gansus yumenensis , had essentially the same structure, although it was not a cormorant per se.

Even the technique of using the distribution and relationships of a species to figure out where it came from, biogeography , usually very informative, does not give very specific data for this probably rather ancient and widespread group.

However, the closest living relatives of the cormorants and shags are the other families of the suborder Sulae — darters and gannets and boobies —which have a primarily Gondwanan distribution.

Hence, at least the modern diversity of Sulae probably originated in the southern hemisphere. Similarly, the origin of the family is shrouded in uncertainties. Some Late Cretaceous fossils have been proposed to belong with the Phalacrocoracidae: A scapula from the Campanian - Maastrichtian boundary, about 70 mya million years ago , was found in the Nemegt Formation in Mongolia ; it is now in the PIN collection.

A Maastrichtian Late Cretaceous , c. As the Early Oligocene "Sula" ronzoni cannot be assigned to any of the suloid families—cormorants and shags, darters, and gannets and boobies—with certainty, the best interpretation is that the Phalacrocoracidae diverged from their closest ancestors in the Early Oligocene, perhaps some 30 million years ago, and that the Cretaceous fossils represent ancestral suloids, "pelecaniforms" or "higher waterbirds"; at least the last lineage is generally believed to have been already distinct and undergoing evolutionary radiation at the end of the Cretaceous.

What can be said with near certainty is that AMNH FR is from a diving bird that used its feet for underwater locomotion; as this is liable to result in some degree of convergent evolution and the bone is missing indisputable neornithine features, it is not entirely certain that the bone is correctly referred to this group.

During the late Paleogene , when the family presumably originated, much of Eurasia was covered by shallow seas, as the Indian Plate finally attached to the mainland.

Lacking a detailed study, it may well be that the first "modern" cormorants were small species from eastern, south-eastern or southern Asia, possibly living in freshwater habitat, that dispersed due to tectonic events. Such a scenario would account for the present-day distribution of cormorants and shags and is not contradicted by the fossil record; as remarked above, a thorough review of the problem is not yet available. Two distinct genera of prehistoric cormorants are widely accepted today, if Phalacrocorax is used for all living species:.

The proposed genus Oligocorax appears to be paraphyletic - the European species have been separated in Nectornis , and the North American ones are placed in the expanded Phalacrocorax.

A Late Oligocene fossil cormoran foot from Enspel Germany , sometimes placed herein, would then be referable to Nectornis if it proves not to be too distinct. All these early European species might belong to the basal group of "microcormorants", as they conform with them in size and seem to have inhabited the same habitat: subtropical coastal or inland waters.

Limicorallus , meanwhile, was initially believed to be a rail or a dabbling duck by some. There are also undescribed remains of apparent cormorants from the Quercy Phosphorites of Quercy France , dating to some time between the Late Eocene and the mid- Oligocene. Some other Paleogene remains are sometimes assigned to the Phalacrocoracidae, but these birds seem quite intermediate between cormorants and darters and lack clear autapomorphies of either. Thus, they may be quite basal members of the Palacrocoracoidea.

The taxa in question are:. The remaining species are, in accordance with the scheme used in this article, all placed in the modern genus Phalacrocorax :. The former "Phalacrocorax" or "Oligocorax" mediterraneus is now considered to belong to the bathornithid Paracrax antiqua. Australocorax Lambrecht , Compsohalieus B. Humans have used cormorants' fishing skills, in China , Japan , and Macedonia , where they have been trained by fishermen. A snare is tied near the base of the bird's throat, which allows the bird only to swallow small fish.

When the bird captures and tries to swallow a large fish, the fish is caught in the bird's throat. When the bird returns to the fisherman's raft, the fisherman helps the bird to remove the fish from its throat. Traditional forms of ukai can be seen on the Nagara River in the city of Gifu , Gifu Prefecture , where cormorant fishing has continued uninterrupted for years, or in the city of Inuyama , Aichi.

In Guilin , China, cormorant birds are famous for fishing on the shallow Lijiang River. In Gifu, the Japanese Cormorant P. Sign In Don't have an account?

Start a Wiki. Contents [ show ]. Boyd III November 12, TiF Checklist. Retrieved Vol 1A. Oxford University Press. Animal Behaviour. Bryan Nelson The Auk. The white neck spots and general coloration are very much unlike that of any other living cormorant, though anatomically it is quite similar to the species composing the punctatus superspecies, which are also the only other members of this family with a grey background color.

Latin name for cormorant

Latin name for cormorant

Latin name for cormorant